International Transport Regulations 21 1.3.3 Protection from short circuit Cells and batteries must be protected so as to prevent short circuits. This includes protection against contact with conductive materials within the same packaging that could lead to a short circuit. Examples of protection against short circuits include, but are not limited to: • individual protection of the battery terminals, • inner packaging to prevent contact between cells and batteries, • batteries with recessed terminals designed to protect against short circuits, or • the use of an electrically non-conductive and non-combustible cushioning material to fill empty space between the cells or batteries in the packaging. 1.3.4 Damaged and Defective Batteries Damaged lithium batteries mean in particular, but are not limited to: - Cells or batteries identified as being defective for safety reasons; - Cells or batteries that have leaked or vented; - Cells or batteries that cannot be diagnosed prior to carriage; or - Cells or batteries that have sustained physical or mechanical damage. In assessing a cell or battery as damaged or defective, an assessment or evaluation shall be performed based on safety criteria from the cell, battery or product manufacturer or by a technical expert with knowledge of the cell’s or battery’s safety features. An assessment or evaluation may include, but is not limited to, the following criteria: (a) Acute hazard, such as gas, fire, or electrolyte leaking; (b) The use or misuse of the cell or battery; (c) Signs of physical damage, such as deformation to cell or battery casing, or colours on the casing; (d) External and internal short circuit protection, such as voltage or isolation measures; (e) The condition of the cell or battery safety features; or (f) Damage to any internal safety components, such as the battery management system. Transport of damaged and defective batteries is regulated as follow: ADR 2021 & 2023 IMDG 40-20 & 41-22 Cells and batteries “not critical” (not liable to dangerously react during transport): Permitted according Special Provision 376 and Packing Instructions P908 and LP904 Cells and batteries “critical” (liable to dangerously react during transport): Permitted according Special Provision 376 and Packing Instructions P911 and LP906 IATA 2022: Forbidden for air transport both “critical” and “not critical” cells and batteries. Cells and batteries “not critical”: NOT liable to dangerously react during transport The packing procedures require approved packagings of packing group II performance level. Packages shall be marked “DAMAGED/DEFECTIVE LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES” or “DAMAGED/DEFECTIVE LITHIUM METAL BATTERIES”, as applicable. Cells or batteries shall be protected against short circuit.