International Transport Regulations 13 1.1 How to use this instruction manual This manual is designed to provide a quick and effective guide to personnel who needs to prepare a shipment of lithium cells and batteries, either new or waste, by road, maritime and air transport modes. It consists of two parts. The first part describes and summarizes the regulatory aspects applicable to the transport of lithium batteries, introducing the basic concepts of the transport of dangerous goods, the duties they impose on producers, distributors and users; it also provides a guide to using the manual in order to give to the user the necessary information. In the second part Summary Sheets are provided for the three modes of transport. This information is condensed into one page. On the opposite page, images and flow charts illustrating how to perform in practice the packaging requirements , guiding the user step by step to prepare the correct shipment, in accordance with the regulation. The battery manufacturers have specific compliance obligations during production and only batteries successfully tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria can be transported and placed on the market. The United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria, updated periodically, imposes several requirements to be observed by shippers of Lithium Metal and Lithium Ion Batteries. Producers, distributors, users, waste managers, recyclers, all those who ship lithium batteries new or waste or even damaged and defective, or that forward them, with or without re-packing, have the obligation to comply with the applicable regulations depending on the different modes: road, maritime and air. It is therefore necessary to know, for each shipment, how to prepare the batteries, which packaging is allowed, how to mark and label packages and which documents to prepare to accompany the shipment. In additions shippers must take into account specific requirements of each transport mode. The provisions applicable in the various transport modes may differ because they are adapted to ensure maximum safety during transport. This means that regulators have introduced special provisions, restrictions and limitations, or other exemptions and exclusions, with the result of making even more complex the regulatory framework for the transport of Lithium Batteries. This manual will propose a decision path that, in six steps, allows users to access the information needed to prepare lithium batteries for transport with the appropriate packaging shipping papers, markings, and labels. These six steps are schematically presented, for new batteries, in the next flowchart. • Cell or battery Cell : a single encased electrochemical unit (one positive and one negative electrode) which exhibits a voltage differential across its two terminals. Battery: two or more cells which are electrically connected together. Step 1 Lithium Metal or Lithium Ion There are many types of lithium batteries which differ by the nature and composition of the electrodes materials, the substances present in the electrolyte and the capacity to convert chemical energy into electricity. For the purposes of dangerous goods transport regulations, however, lithium batteries classification has been reduced to two groups: lithium metal and lithium ion.